The following events in French history may be important as background for En-Garde! games, not all are french, and are chosen for historical perspective.

  • 1562–1598 Wars of Religion
  • 1584-1598 War of the Three Henrys (8th of the Wars of Religion)
  • 1589 Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. They proclaim the deposition of the King, and acclaim the imprisoned Cardinal de Bourbon as the rightful King of France, calling him Charles X. The King makes peace with his old rival, Henry of Navarre, and together they besiege Paris.
  • 1589 Henry III of France is murdered by a fanatical Catholic monk.
  • 1589 Henry of Navarre proclaims himself as King Henry IV of France. Henry is forced to give up the siege of Paris
  • 1589–1598 Franco-Spanish War
  • 1589 Battle of Arques - King Henry's forces defeat the forces of the Catholic League under Duke Charles of Mayenne
  • 1589 Henry IV is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League.
  • 1590 Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne
  • 1590 Unsuccessful siege of Paris by Henry IV. Henry is forced to raise the siege when the Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
  • 1590 Pope Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V as the 228th pope; he dies of malaria twelve days later.
  • 1590 Pope Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII as the 229th pope.
  • 1591 Pope Innocent IX succeeds Pope Gregory XIV as the 230th pope.
  • 1592 Pope Clement VIII succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
  • 1592 Negotiations begin for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite de Valois.
  • 1593 King Henry IV of France returns to Catholicism and is recognized as King in most of France.
  • 1594 Henry IV is crowned King of France at Chartres.
  • 1595 William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet is probably first performed.
  • 1595 Battle of Fontaine-Française. Henry IV defeats the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness.
  • 1596 The Spanish capture Amiens
  • 1596 The first water closet, by Sir John Harrington, is installed in a manor near Kelston in England.
  • 1596 The Black Death hits parts of Europe.
  • 1596 Died: Blaise de Vigenère, French cryptographer, diplomat, scientist, and author.
  • 1597 Jacopo Peri writes Dafne, now recognised as the first opera.
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. Considered the end of the French Wars of Religion.
  • 1598 Peace of Vervins - End of war between France and Spain.
  • 1598 Tycho Brahe's star catalogue listing the positions of 1004 stars is published.
  • 1599 The Globe Theatre opens in London.
  • 1600 Died: Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher (burned at the stake) (born 1548) Scientific Martyr
  • 1601 Treaty of Lyon Henry IV acquires Bugey, Valromey, Gex, and Bresse.
  • 1601 Born: September 27 - King Louis XIII of France (died 1643)
  • 1602 Born: Jules Cardinal Mazarin, French statesman (d. 1661)
  • 1603 Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin, King James I of England, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.
  • 1604 France begins settling Acadia, first successful French North American colony.
  • 1604 France begins settling French Guiana.
  • 1605 Pope Leo XI succeeds Pope Clement VIII as the 232nd pope.
  • 1605 Pope Paul V succeeds Pope Leo XI as the 233rd pope.
  • 1607 Rule of Andorra is passed jointly to the king of France and the Bishop of Urgell.
  • 1608 Quebec City founded by Samuel de Champlain.
  • 1609 Samuel de Champlain claims the Lake Champlain area of Vermont for France.
  • 1610 Francois Ravaillac assassinates Henry IV
  • 1610 Ravaillac is executed by being pulled apart by horses in the Place de Grève.
  • 1610 Luis XIII Coronation(at age 9)
  • 1613 Samuel de Champlain becomes the first unofficial Governor of New France.
  • 1613 A locust swarm destroys La Camarque, France.
  • 1614 The French Estates-General meets for the last time before the era of the French Revolution. In between, France will be governed as an absolute monarchy.
  • 1616 The Treaty of Loudun is signed, ending a series of rebellions in France.
  • 1616 The Swiss Guard is appointed part of the household guard of King Louis XIII.
  • 1618 Died: Jacques-Davy Duperron, French cardinal (b. 1556)
  • 1618 Start of the Thirty Years' War
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